This chapter explores Japan’s attempts through the 1980s to strengthen the U.S.–Japan relationship and to expand the diplomatic horizons of Japan to the global level, in the process moving from being just an economic power to an “international one.” However, this was accompanied by increased trade friction with the United States, a restart of the so-called “history problem” with the countries of Asia, and problems with Europe. Moreover, with the end of the Cold War, the path of Japan as an “international state” was once again questioned.