Drawing together conclusions from the range and diversity of material included in this Handbook is something of a challenge. We could argue that this very diversity is a vindication of the undertaking, and one of the key messages to be drawn from the book. People are working in many different social settings, and many different structural and cultural contexts, to promote children and young people’s participation. They are working with diverse groups of children and young people, from babies to young adults, with diverse needs and capacities. They are also working to markedly different agendas and with very different outcomes. It is clear that participation has a wide variety of meanings, for different people and in different contexts. We need to examine and learn from this diversity if we are to achieve a shared understanding of children and young people’s participation.