I should like to follow the way O'Shaughnessy orients us at the beginning of this ®ne, illuminating paper. She refers to the importance Rosenfeld attached to the patient's persecutory anxieties, the phantasy of the analyst forcing himself into the patient in order to control and rob. Rosenfeld understood these phantasies as derived from the patient's projection of parts of his own personality, particularly those that embodied primitive impulses to invade, to possess and control, into the analyst who becomes identi®ed, in the patient's mind, with these projected parts. The patient feels driven to defend himself against such an invasive and destructive object by a variety of mechanisms, such as withdrawal, avoidance, and the negating of interpretations.