Industrial water use has a significant impact on the water resources in many European river basins. The importance of the industrial sector is also recognised in the Water Framework Directive (WFD), as industrial water use has to be considered in the overall characterisation of a river basin and particular measures, relevant to the industry, can be identified which help to achieve the water quality and quantity objectives stated in a river basin management plan. A general model of industrial water use and management practices is given in Figure 8.1, which shows the general water balance in an industrial process.