The focus of this chapter is on the roots of physical literacy as they develop in the young child. The first part of the chapter is devoted to the growth and maturation of the infant from birth, with particular reference to physical development. This is followed by a section in which consideration is given to the significant contribution of the acquisition, extension and application of movement vocabulary to the enhancement of physical competence, including the involvement of emerging movement capacities. In the final part of the chapter there is a discussion of the importance of play in the life of the young child, with consideration of how these experiences can foster development of a range of attributes of physical literacy.