Like many of the others in this book, this chapter addresses the confluence of space policy, militarising dynamics and the significance of rhetorical strategies, in this case as they apply to the European space programme. Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, Europe has taken a series of key steps towards creating the framework for a European military space capability. Although these moves have attracted little political and media attention, they are profoundly important, signalling not only the further military evolution of the European Union, but also the militarisation of the European Space Agency, an organisation previously constitutionally limited to ‘peaceful purposes’ only. While the history of European integration demonstrates clearly that there is often a mismatch between rhetoric and reality, and political initiatives invariably take a very long time to come to fruition, nevertheless, the developments in European space policy are profoundly significant.