Among the more remarkable features of religions in our contemporary world are the following: first, virtually in all regions of global society, we find a similar idea of what counts as religion and what are to be recognized as religions. Second, what counts and what is recognized is nonetheless highly contested, principally along two lines, between religion and non-religion and between one religion and another. Third, every religion exhibits a high degree of internal variety, often to such an extent that one may legitimately wonder what it is that nonetheless makes for the unity of any one of them. These three features are, of course, interconnected. Contestation around what should count as one of the religions often takes the form of declaring a particular religion as a non-religion, for instance, Scientology in some countries; or of disagreeing about whether a certain manifestation is within the fold or outside of it. For example, are Jehovah’s Witnesses or Mormons Christians? Is Baha’i a separate religion or a heretical movement within Islam? Are Sikhs a variety of Hindus?