This book has examined the demographic situation in a very important region of the world where population decline is in prospect. It may seem strange to be so concerned about low fertility and the possibility of population declines. Over recent decades, the main worry among international agencies and national planners has been about the consequences of rapid population growth, and although this growth is slowing worldwide, there is still great concern about the perils to the very survival of humanity resulting from further population growth and the demands this is placing on the world’s resources and ecosystems. World population has grown by almost 37 percent over the past two decades, from 5 billion to 6.7 billion. It is expected to increase to at least 9 billion before it levels off. In launching the 570-page Global Environmental Outlook report in 2007, the head of the UN Environment Program, Achim Steiner, said, “the human population is now so large that the amount of resources needed to sustain it exceeds what is available at current consumption patterns” (UNEP, 2007).