It has long been the practice to analyze modern Asia from the viewpoint of nations and international relationships so as to assess “nation-building,” the acceptance of “international” law, and economic development in the respective Asian countries. After much controversy concerning the applicability of this Western-oriented modernization model to Asia, however, there has been growing recognition that “areas” or “regions,” an intermediate category between the nation and the world, should be analyzed in their full historical meaning. In fact, the region as an historical formation cannot be adequately comprehended under the nation-international framework.