The literature on Islam and human rights in Indonesia has grown rapidly in the past fifteen years. Most of these writings have focused on liberal or pluralist interpretations of human rights advanced by Islamic intellectuals and leaders such as Nurcholish Madjid, Abdurrahman Wahid, Djohan Effendi, Dawam Rahardjo, Syafii Maarif, Ulil Abshar-Abdalla, Azyumardi Azra and Luthfie Assyaukanie. Apart from a large number of works in Indonesian, there is also a sizeable English-language literature from Western scholars, including Robert Hefner (2000), Greg Barton (2002) and Martin van Bruinessen (1996).