This chapter examines the politics of knowledge and the cultures of information in contemporary scholarly communication, because they are being transformed into digital modes of communication from a print-based regime of scholarship and knowledge accumulation. As these changes unfold, the work of libraries and librarians must adapt to these transformations. Whereas some are, many are not, inasmuch as the practices of print have provided implicitly the standards used by scholars and society to judge the quality, utility, and durability of knowledge. Although print literacy is not lost in the online environment with electronic media, digitalization changes what documents are, who can create them, how information is generated, why it is valued, where it is accumulated, and when it is used.