In The Practical Negotiator (1982), Zartman and Maureen R. Berman lay out a type of phased process analysis that examines behavior during the different phases or stages in negotiations using what they call a three-stage approach: “diagnosisformula-details.” This innovation was aimed at clarifying “the nature of the process of negotiation” (1982: 9), by identifying stages of negotiation and the different types of problems and behaviors associated with each stage. They argue that a process model is “more useful in ordering and preparing for reality than a mere checklist” (1982: 10). A model is not a prescription for victory nor is it just one of the many ways to arrive at an agreement, but rather identifies “the general path or sequence through which those different ways flow” (1982: 10).