Pupils in modern society are living in confusing and unpredictable times, in which they must be equipped with skills that enable them to think for themselves and be self-initiating, self-modifying and self-directing. They must acquire the capacity to learn and change consciously, continuously and quickly, to anticipate what might happen and continually search for more creative solutions. Learning for the twenty-first century involves much more than acquiring knowledge. It requires the capacity for ‘reflective judgment’ – the ability to make judgements and interpretations, less on the basis of ‘right answers’ than on the basis of ‘good reasons’ (King and Kitchener, 1994).