The aim of this chapter is to provide a conceptual and intuitive overview of the main insights stemming from a microeconomic, “theory of the firm” like, analysis of non-profit organisation (NPO) management. Apart from more general aspects such as objectives and governance, the main functional domains are discussed: organisational strategy, marketing (volunteers, donations and subsidies, profit activities), accounting (financial accounting, audit, management accounting, accounting manipulations), finance (capital structure, investment analysis, financial vulnerability), and some aspects of human resources management. The literature reviewed proves that the internal functioning of NPOs can be analysed with the same microeconomic instruments and concepts as applied to for-profit organisations or governmental agencies, but also that a large number of topics are still under-researched. Most empirical research has been conducted with US data, though contextual differences might suggest that when the same framework is applied to European organisations, the empirical evidence cannot be expected to be comparable to the US evidence. Furthermore, European researchers are disadvantaged when trying to analyse these topics, due to the lack of standardised data on inputs and outputs of non-profit organisations.