Studies of sexuality look at both practices and attitudes, and, of course, each influences the other. As we look at what people did, we can learn more about what they thought about sex, and sexologists find that beliefs about sexuality are the most important topic of study. After all, as everyone knows, the brain is the most important sexual organ. Thus, in this article, I will focus on attitudes toward sexuality as they were developed during the transition from the pagan to the Christian Roman Empire.