In this book stock is taken of the wave of regulatory changes and initiatives that took place in Europe in the post-Enron era and that relate to the statutory audit function. In many countries auditor independence rules have become tighter, more precisely specified, and the auditing activity has been put under the supervision of public company oversight boards. These and other related regulatory changes exhibit close resemblance to initiatives that have been taken in the US, and are often seen as responses to the public trust crisis of the capital markets which (supposedly) existed in the aftermath of a number of corporate fraud scandals such as Enron and Parmalat.