The global proliferation of psychology is evident not only in the rising the numbers of psychologists and psychology students, but also in the growth of scientific and applied specialization and the psychological organizations, journals, and training programs that represent these specialties (Stevens & Wedding, 2004a). Furthermore, psychology is experiencing rejuvenation throughout the world. Witness the restoration and development of psychology in East European countries that have transitioned from communism to alternative economic and political systems (e.g., Poland) as well as the surge in psychological science and practice in South American nations with healthy economies and political institutions (e.g., Brazil; Jing, 2000; Stevens & Wedding, 2004b). In part II, chapters 2 and 3 trace the diverse roots of these trends and enlarge on their current status. The connection between stable economic and political conditions and the growth of psychology is revealed by the expectations of governments, business and industry, and the public that psychology address national challenges and promote personal well-being in response to modernization (Jing, 2000; Stevens & Wedding, 2004a). This is certainly the case in developing countries (e.g., China; Jing, 2000; Stevens & Wedding, 2004b), which create jobs for psychologists, allocate resources

for psychological research, practice, and training, and pass legislation that legitimizes and safeguards psychology (Stevens & Wedding, 2004b). There is more to say on psychology in the developing world in part Two, chapter 4.