An important aspect of social stratification in post-reform China is that educational opportunities available to children are increasingly diverse. Heightened economic inequalities associated with market reforms, coupled with school finance policies that have strengthened the link between local resources and the provision of education, have led to great variability in investments in education by local governments, and by families. As the studies in this volume by Connelly and Zheng and Postiglione indicate, access to education is closely linked to characteristics such as location of residence, socio-economic status, gender, and ethnicity.