Social structure and social learning are identified in this chapter as two major themes which are central to the discussion surrounding social sustainability in relation to landscape architecture. The chapter introduces these themes by examining the background to the crisis which communal life and landscapes in the UK are perceived to have suffered during the 1970s to the 1990s. Concepts of democracy, public participation, empowerment, landscape exclusion and social justice, communities and decision making are discussed under the theme of social structure and some potentials for more integrated and responsive decision making structures are identified. Under the theme of social learning, concepts of community building, rights and responsibilities, volunteering and citizenship, cultural diversity, identity and character are examined. Changing perceptions of the city and city communities, their behaviour, attitude and lifestyles are also identified. Finally, the author examines ways of building more integrated thinking through community projects and the way community projects are funded. A number of important points emerge from this discussion. These are summarized in the conclusion and some ideas are provided on the way forward for the landscape profession in thinking about this complex and difficult subject.