Over the last two decades, one of the most important challenges for improving global governance has been poverty reduction in low-income countries. This reflects how the prevalence of extreme poverty, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, is closely associated with internal, regional and global conflicts; with marginalized groups of people and resultant social tensions; and with an imbalance in global prosperity. Despite the rising global living standards over the period examined here, nearly half of the world’s six billion people still live on less than US$2 a day; while one-fifth live on less than US$1 a day and are without basic human needs.