ABSTRACT

Pre-or post-haulage (PPH) is an important part of intermodal freight chains and networks, as it substantially contributes to the door-do-door performance and costs. PPH easily stands for 50 per cent of the chain costs (both sides of the network). The new wave of transport sustainability research has clarified that PPH is also a crucial part of the environmental performance and external costs of chains and networks. The relevance of PPH stands in contrast to the limited amount of research devoted to this transport area. Central publications are Spasovic (1991), Transcare (1996), Nierat (1996), and the European research project Imprend (Buck et al., 1999). Finally there is a large range of affiliated operations research, which deals with strategies to collect and distribute freight in general.