Direct-to-home (DTH) satellite operators use space stations to deliver multichannel video programming directly to consumers and businesses. Th e introduction of direct broadcast satellite (DBS) service in 1994 marked a new chapter in the evolution of DTH. Although the Federal Communications Commission (FCC/Commission) originally issued DBS licenses to a number of potential operators, two of them-DIRECTV and DISH Network-have consolidated virtually all of these licenses, and developed consumer antennas capable of receiving signals from multiple orbital locations. Th ese two DBS operators are today among the largest multichannel video programming distributors (MVPDs) in the country.