This chapter focuses on development studies that has theoretically centred on the notion of human development rather than economic development, and has adopted the idea of promoting Sen’s ‘development as freedom.’ It briefly lays out an introduction of the position of India vis-a-vis the Bank and also the interplay of human rights and the Bank. In light of the debate as to the usefulness of a human rights–based approach to development, it may be argued that the World Bank is in a way ‘fulfilling’ its human rights obligations; however, the Bank refrains from the use of the human rights terminology. Essentially a rights-based approach is based explicitly on the norms and values set out in the international law of human rights. Human–rights based approach to development (HRBA) is an approach to development that uses human rights as justifications and guidelines as well as standards and benchmarks for development.