In this chapter, the authors present research on failure and students’ perceptions of failure in a learning situation. They deal with conceptualizations of failure that are conceived within the boundary conditions of a scientific field, a study programme, a specific course, as well as a specific epoque and world region that sharpen our image of ourselves, and of what the readers can and ought to archive. In addition to scientific research aims and practice-relevant objectives, various learning goals are pursued, such as design of transdisciplinary research project, the application of specific methods and collaboration skills. The collaborative research process is realized in three different team constellations: the student team (composed of students with diverse disciplinary backgrounds), the academic team (including teaching assistants and lecturers from diverse knowledge fields) and the transdisciplinary team (including societal actors from outside academia). In addition, each student hands in an essay that emphasizes a specific aspect of the transdisciplinary research process which the students self-select.