This chapter makes a comprehensive analysis of the current status, issues and challenges for the attainment of SDGs for education. In particular, it draws attention to two of the SDG targets on schooling and preschooling, which include free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education of all boys and girls and increased access of boys and girls to quality early childhood development, care and pre-primary education. In terms of school education, the chapter highlights key concerns related to non-attendance or irregular attendance, dropouts or discontinuation and the cost and quality of schooling. With respect to preschooling, the pre-primary facilities and the ambiguous levels of preparedness among students have been highlighted. The chapter recognises inequity in the provisioning and utilisation of educational opportunities across social, religious and economic groups as the single greatest challenge facing the education system of India. By presenting statistical evidences, it argues that inequity is predominantly faced by children from minority or marginalised social groups, such as Dalits, Adivasis and Muslims, and such inequity is all the more severe for girls across all social groups. The paper observes that the goals of SDG for education, namely equity, inclusion and quality, need clearer defining, vision and measures for facilitating their translation into action.