This chapter reviews the Indian perspectives of the SDG on food security and sustainable agriculture. The food security situation in the country is assessed through supply side factors such as productivity of principle crops, levels of poverty, extent of malnutrition and access to sanitation, safe drinking water and health care. An assessment of the latter three sectors is particularly important as these are needed for improving the food absorption capacity of people. Sustainable agriculture is a system of agriculture which is based on principles and options which are ecologically sound, economically feasible and culturally acceptable. In this chapter sustainable agriculture development is seen through complementarity between usage of non-chemical and chemical fertilizers, water use efficiency in agriculture such as drip and sprinkler system of irrigation, water harvesting and water efficient cropping pattern changes. It also covers an analysis of additional growth of leguminous crops, as these crops are needed for nitrogen-fixation in the soil thereby enhancing its fertility. The chapter thus discusses food security concerns and sustainable agricultural practices by examining the empirical data and on-going interventions that have been implemented to address the same.