There are many discussions of human perfection in Islamic literature. The ideal of human perfection is particularly prominent in Shi‘i and Sufi works, and these traditions are not unrelated, although the earliest discussions appear to pertain to the Prophet Muhammad (ṣ) and ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (‘a). Two of the oldest topics of controversy in Shi‘i kalām are those of inerrancy and exaggeration. We begin with an introduction to these concepts, followed by a brief overview of their early appearance in theological debates among the Shi‘a. Next we review the place of these concepts in contemporary Twelver Shi‘i theology and related fields, such as jurisprudence and mysticism. Finally, observations are offered with regard to the relevance of these issues to interreligious dialogue and Islamic ecumenical discussions.