The world stands at the cusp of a new era of technological change: A range of emerging technologies, such as artificial intelligence (AI), robotics, automation, 3D printing, deepfakes, and blockchain are primed to have an impact on all aspects of society. AI, in particular, has been singled out by prominent tech companies, philosophers, and political leaders as the most transformative of these emerging technologies and in need of intense and sustained investigation. AI technology has achieved key milestones and surpassed previous projections. While emerging technologies offer immense promise, their proliferation poses challenges to international peace and security, and they raise new ethical and political questions about the use of power and the role of humans in conflicts and war and the way states are interacting with their citizens. The chapter also presents an overview on the key concepts discussed in this book.