This chapter discusses how libertarians have analyzed racial inequality. In general, libertarian and classical liberal writers have opposed institutions of racial domination such as slavery, apartheid, segregation, colonialism, and mass incarceration. As radical individualists, most libertarians see racism as inherently irrational and antithetical to the ethos of individual freedom. This chapter reviews how public choice theory is used to analyze racial discrimination and more recent debates about immigration and racial injustice. This chapter also addresses racially illiberal statement made by some libertarian writers. The conclusion of this chapter argues that libertarians should focus on how racially repressive policies may be de-institutionalized and how racism may be ameliorated in the private sphere.