In most European countries, Nuclear Waste Management (NWM) became a subject of concern for public authorities with the development of the nuclear power industry in the 1970s. If NWM is still a national prerogative, it is also true that it has been, since its inception, conceived as an object of global and European governance. International organisations such as the Euratom, the International Atomic Energy Agency or the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development have played a pivotal role in the development of the industry and in setting up international safety standards. This was reinforced in 2011 when the European Union adopted a legally binding directive known as the Waste Directive that “establishes a community framework for the responsible and safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste”. This chapter presents the main characteristic of the European nuclear waste governance system. A first section is devoted to technical considerations about how NWM has historically been dealt with in the EU. The second section focuses on the different regulatory initiatives that have taken place since the inception of a European nuclear governance. A concluding section presents the current challenges for NWM governance in the EU especially regarding stakeholders’ participation and public involvement in decision-making.