The chapter studies the concept of caste, which symbolizes exoticism and the oppressive character of ‘Oriental’ civilization. The argument shows that caste, as it exists today, is a hybrid of precolonial sociocultures and colonialism, i.e. of ‘Occident’ and ‘Orient.’ Over recent decades, caste has been transformed by capitalism. Those characteristics of caste that are most appalling to liberal sentiments, namely its rigid limits and hierarchy, were largely constructions by British colonial rule. At the same time, religious legitimation, endogamy, commensality, and community are traits of caste that seem to reach back to precolonial times. While such traits characterize caste, they are not exclusively Indian. In their combination, however, all traits do form a social ontology that is particularly Indian – something that is explored in the final section of the chapter.