In local and international literature and reports, porous borders, ungoverned spaces and ongoing insurgency in the southern Philippines largely contribute to the vulnerability of the region to terrorist and violent extremist threats. In September 2017, the Institute for Autonomy and Governance in partnership with the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue and with the support of the government of the Netherlands launched the research on Youth Vulnerability to Violent Extremism in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM). The conduct of the field research was in March 2017, two months before the Marawi siege. The analysis, interpretation and writing of the report was during May to June 2017. Given the close proximity of the data gathering to the attack on Marawi, the research provides insights on the mindset of young people leading to the siege. This chapter summarizes the findings of the research particularly on the extent and drivers of vulnerability of young people in four provinces in the ARMM to radicalization and the recommended measures to mitigate and address these vulnerabilities.