This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book discusses industrial capital’s penetration into, and transformation of, agriculture and some of its contradictions. It provides a unique perspective on the concept of agrarian extractivism, contributing to its analytical and political utility. The book shows the contradictions between discourse and practice in Evo Morales’ Bolivia. It examines the ways in which gender relations are central to the functioning of agrarian extractivism through a case study of oil palm plantations in the Colombian Caribbean sub-region of Montes de María, arguing that agrarian extractivism relies on, and deepens, gender disparities and forms of gender-based violence. The book explores the new extractivist dynamics of sugarcane production in coastal Ecuador, arguing that a state-sponsored agro-fuels project facilitates agro-extractivist expansion. It provides a valuable contribution to our understanding of the extractivist features of corporate-led, external-input, plantation agriculture.