Some people are destined to have poorer health and an earlier death than others. These inequalities in health are caused by social factors and, because they are widely seen as unfair, they are often called health inequities. This chapter explores inequalities in health between places by comparing the health of those living in wealthier areas versus those in more deprived areas. It examines health inequalities between groups of people based on ethnicity, sex and gender, education, income, occupation and socio-economic position. It illustrates how unequal societies have more health and social problems, and how some communities are made particularly vulnerable through social exclusion. An intersectional approach to inequalities in health recognises that people have multiple identities which can lead to an accumulation of disadvantage and poor health. The World Health Organization’s Commission on the Social Determinants of Health Conceptual Framework seeks to explain the root social causes of these health inequities. These social causes impact on individuals who undertake their own unique health journey through their own life course. The chapter concludes with thoughts about why health equality matters.