This chapter focuses on people’s inner worlds and some of the social influences which shape how they think and feel about themselves. It defines mental, emotional and spiritual health and explains why these are priorities for health promotion and public health. It describes examples of disorders and distress that affect large numbers of people, causing misery, physical health problems and sometimes death. These include stress, trauma, anxiety, depression, loss, bereavement and suicide. The chapter highlights how prejudice, discrimination and loneliness contribute to, and escalate, distress, social exclusion and inequalities in health. This is the experience of many people with mental disorders. The chapter concludes that a nurturing community is needed to support people’s mental, emotional and spiritual health.