Sexual health is integral to the health and wellbeing of individuals. This chapter describes current definitions of sexual health, sexuality and sexual rights. It examines examples of negative and positive aspects of sexual health. These include descriptions of sexually transmitted infections: chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, genital herpes, genital warts and HIV, along with their UK prevalence data. The chapter discusses how unintended/unplanned pregnancies can have a negative impact on women’s lives. It includes an outline of abortion laws and explains the dangers of unsafe abortions. It describes coercive control and the longer-term impacts of sexual violence and assault. The chapter discusses how sexual attitudes and behaviour are shaped by the socio-cultural norms of people’s daily lives, including religion, culture, the internet and other forms of digital media that publicise local sexual health services as well as pornography. The chapter ends by arguing that sexual health requires a positive and respectful approach to human sexuality and relationships, and understanding our sexual rights is central to achieving this.