Human learning is a complex phenomenon that requires adaptive processes across a range of temporal and spatial scales. Although our understanding of those processes at any individual scale has increased exponentially over the last few years, a mechanistic understanding of the entire phenomenon has remained elusive. We propose that progress has been stymied by the lack of a quantitative framework that can account for the full range of neurophysiological and behavioral dynamics observed across different types of learning. We posit that network neuroscience offers promise in meeting this challenge. Built on the mathematical fields of complex systems science and graph theory, network neuroscience embraces the interconnected and hierarchical nature of human learning, offering insights into the emergent properties of adaptability. In this review, we discuss the utility of network neuroscience as a tool to build a quantitative framework in which to study human learning. The approach seeks to explain the full chain of events in the brain from sensory input to motor output, being both biologically plausible and able to make predictions about how an intervention at a single level of the chain may cause alterations in another level of the chain. We close by laying out important remaining challenges in network neuroscience, including bridging spatial scales at which neurophysiological processes occur, and underscore the utility of such a quantitative framework for education and therapy.