This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book explores how a range of complex methodological and ethical challenges can be addressed by working with indigenous epistemologies based in land and introduces conceptual frameworks from First Nations in the north of Australia. It also explores forest rights act, local collectivization and transformation in Korchi, Indal, India. The book discusses how tribal communities in India living around forests are confronted with a transition in the food production system leading to changing consumption as well. It also discusses the very topical issue of the tropical forests of the Amazon region in Colombia and that their biological diversity is being lost rapidly by the onslaught of extractive industries, large-scale agriculture and infrastructure development. The book also explores and compares the development of Nordic deep ecology and the philosophy of indigenous and communitarian universities in Latin America.