This chapter examines how gender influences the mobilization of environmental movements. Participation in different types of environmental movements varies by gender, as differences in recruitment and participation are related to women’s roles in their families and communities and to mobilizing structures and networks associated with those roles. Historically, gender has affected the organizations, campaigns, and coalitions of environmental movements. Women have provided leadership to numerous environmental campaigns, and their participation in protests against toxic waste disposal and other dangers to communities brought effective new tactics and frames to the movement. Women have used their images as mothers strategically, effectively framing campaigns around threats to the health of their children. Male gender roles have also affected participation in environmental campaigns, in some cases limiting men’s participation. Our review encourages new research on the ways in which gender dynamics affect participation, skill sharing, organization, framing, and tactics in recent environmental campaigns.