Clearly, the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001 were the defining acts of the 21st century not only for the United States, but also worldwide with the ensuing Global War on Terrorism. Indian Country was impacted by these events in that the newly created Department of Homeland Security authorized further encroachment into Indian reservations. At the same time, unfinished business regarding Indian gaming, Indian health and education, and criminal justice also continued into the new century.