In this chapter, we present: (1) a variety of theoretical frameworks used in STEM educational research, (2) an organizational structure through which to navigate these frameworks, and (3) a meta-analysis of how each of the STEM disciplines employs (or does not employ) the various frameworks. The organization and discussion of theoretical frameworks provides researchers with a useful tool to make decisions regarding project design and alignment of methodologies, and the meta-analysis provides a useful overview of where and how theoretical frameworks are being used. Together, this chapter serves as a point of comparison to derive implications for future directions for STEM educational research.