The chapter provides a historical overview of student representation in England considering developments since the 1994 Education Act. The chapter starts by considering the impact of the introduction and increase of tuition fees, introduction of market mechanisms to regulate student consumerism and an analysis of Government White Papers to identify the direction of government policy over the period. The chapter then outlines the current situation relating to student engagement – looking at both individual and collective engagement – and student representation, considering the role of technology, diversity of the study body, behaviours of student representatives and perceptions of the effectiveness of representation systems drawing on a national survey of students’ unions and institutions and a series of interviews. Finally, the chapter considers possible ways to enhance student representation in the future, including the impact of academic and professional staff in engaging students and training to mitigate power imbalances, as well as reflecting on the effectiveness of university committee structures.