ABSTRACT

Much gender analysis continues to rely on a binary understanding of gender, neglecting the diversity of sexual orientations and gender identities and expressions (SOGIE). Full understanding of the complexity of how gender norms matter in violent conflict requires moving beyond heterosexist and cisgender framing of gender. This chapter considers the heightened and layered vulnerabilities for gender and sexual minorities (GSM) living in war-related environments. A case study on the Colombian conflict explores the violence faced by those with diverse SOGIE as well as how queer communities support one another to survive conflict violence. The authors consider how post-conflict offers a moment to push back against heteropatriarchal and cisgender norms. They conclude with a look at international organisations currently working to respond to conflict-related violence against GSM with a focus on the work by OutRight Action International, Madre and the Organization for Women’s Freedom in Iraq.