This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the concepts covered in the preceding chapters of this book. The book shows the great variety of experiences of six Latin American countries in managing the challenges of urban growth. It explores the impact of exogenous forces, whether at the global or regional level, that have affected the outcomes of urban policy and programs in Latin American cities. The book describes the significance of Habitat II and Habitat III in determining urban policy objectives and the design of public programs, investments, and institutions. It argues the analytic problem of distinguishing cause and effect in urban policy processes over the twenty-year period and how this relates to a broader understanding of what is “urban practice”. The book ends with a call for new attention to the multiple causes of social exclusion in cities in Latin America.