This chapter examines how technology might affect the future of the societies and economies and shows how the development paradigm might change. The pathway for economic development is becoming increasingly uncertain and unpredictable, however, in light of rapid recent strides in technology. Global wealth in terms of gross domestic product and per capita income is at record levels and development indices for basic indicators such as health and education seem to be improving in most developing countries. Rural development in the context of structural transformation is also accompanied by a concentration of economic activity in urban areas. The changing fundamentals of sustainable structural transformation, including premature de-industrialization call for attention to specific aspects of rural development. Development partners and governments will have to recalibrate their thinking in the new technology era. Development professionals need to be aware of the influence of technology and its role in shaping the direction of global policy discourse.