Numerous studies have shown that the Philosophy for Children (P4C) programme can promote the development of critical thinking. Meanwhile, it is arguable that the emphasis of Confucianism on creating a hierarchical and harmonious society can easily lead to submission rather than opposition, producing a conformist rather than a critical mind. A question arises here as to whether Confucianism tends to denigrate criticism and thus hinder the development of critical thinking through P4C in Hong Kong. In this chapter, I first argue that Confucianism still has a profound influence on the Chinese in the modern world. I then examine the connection between Confucianism and criticism, focusing on how Confucianism is critical. Finally, I report the results of the first systematic study that assesses the effectiveness of P4C in promoting children’s critical thinking in Hong Kong.