What is “distributive justice”? We start this chapter by exploring how distributive justice differs from other forms of justice, and then identify several variants on what constitutes distributive justice. Moving beyond theory, we explore what distributive justice means on the ground. We identify the different decision-making contexts whereby issues of distributive justice arise, the kinds of evidence evaluating distributive justice, and the difficult question of what causes distributive injustice. Finally, using the United States as a case study, we consider mechanisms for achieving distributive justice.