This chapter begins by presenting a definition of Rational choice theory (RCT). It assesses the claims about the central benefits of RCT and discusses basic trends in the use of RCT in comparative politics. The chapter suggests that students of comparative politics should strive to assimilate the emphasis on actors and instrumental rationality that are a characteristic of RCT, but go beyond RCT and built a broader, more encompassing theory of action. Indeed, efforts to use game theory in comparative politics have for all practical purposes ignored the entire debate about the expected utility model and proceeded to use the rational actor model without giving much thought to its significant limitations. Game theorists in comparative politics have tended to adopt a purist response in the face of challenges to the theoretical principles of game theory. The key theoretical contribution of traditional game theory, as has long been recognized, is its emphasis on strategic choice.