This chapter examines the vast region of Russia that takes in the eastern slopes of the Ural Mountains and West and East Siberia. In addition to the Urals, the principal regions are the West Siberian plain, the mid-Siberian plateau, the mountains of southern Siberia, and the mountain system of northeastern Siberia. Siberia is situated in the middle and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, in the temperate and arctic climatic belts. Siberia’s arid climate contributes to the freezing of the soil and the formation of permafrost. The majority of Siberian rivers, including the most voluminous, empty into the Arctic basin. The stream of settlers grew after the emancipation of serfs in 1861 and especially following the construction in 1891–1905 of the Trans-Siberian Railroad. Siberia is famed for its wealth of natural resources, from the oil fields of Tyumen to the gold mines of Kolyma.