This chapter reviews some congressional mechanisms for shaping US policies, assesses the effectiveness and appropriateness of these mechanisms, and discusses the status of US non-proliferation policy. The legislative process provides a myriad of ways for Congress to influence the president's policies. Legislation can and does serve many political objectives, and is introduced for a variety of reasons with different expectations for results. Proliferation and Middle East arms control were a hot topic on Capitol Hill in 1991-92. The end of Cold War, and Operation Desert Storm, caused the Congress to focus more attention on proliferation issues. One of the legislative tools used by Congress to encourage transparency, or openness, on the part of Executive Branch is to require periodic reports to the appropriate congressional committees on particular policies. Such reports are intended to facilitate oversight by reminding agencies of the need to justify their actions. Congress can also amend or pass new laws to loosen and/or tighten controls on exports.